ORIGIN OF PROTOCOL: HUMAN COOPERATION

In the previous articles, we talked about protocol (Protocol in the XXI Century) from a scientific point of view. The existing literature on the discipline (Overview of the biography of Protocol) is like. Today we would like to talk about another equally relevant perspective: what is the origin of protocol?

The first answer that will probably come to our minds as professionals will be human socialisation. After all, it is a tool used in the celebration of symbols. But according to what we have researched from the perspective of sociology or psychology, this would be an obvious yet completely wrong answer among other disciplines.

From the psychological perspective, authors such as Ruiz Tafur (2009) review the phenomenon of socialisation according to authors such as Freud and Piaget. Her findings lead her to argue that it is defined as the acquisition of patterns of behaviour, attitudes and values that constitute the substrate on which the personality of the human being is built. Hence, socialisation would allow us to explain how the integration of the norms and standards of society occurs but not the process of creating them. Therefore, from this psychological perspective, the protocol does not come from the phenomenon of human socialisation.

Let’s look at the socialisation process from a sociological perspective. It is considered the process by which a person becomes a functional member of society, acquiring the culture that is his own. Socialisation is the process of acquiring a culture (Lucas Marín, 1986, p. 357). From this perspective, socialisation has an important weight because it entails a process of formation and growth of an individual but does not explain the origin of the protocol.

Ruling out human socialisation led us to investigate the latest scientific literature on human cooperation, and it is precisely there where we consider having found the origin of the protocol.

Studies argue that altruism or cooperation’s origin would be what we call parental altruism. In other words, it is the fact that occurs in animal and human species where cooperative behaviour is experienced with the nearest «family» to perpetuate the genetic makeup. This type of behaviour with the evolution of the species argues that it will be part of one or more genes in humans that will be transmitted from one generation to another. It is curious to say that the origin of cooperation is a selfish attitude.

This will produce what is called «reciprocal altruism» at one point or another. This implies a predisposition to altruism towards the nearest «family» and other people outside this nucleus who will also be recognised as altruists (Silva & Gustavo, 2015, p. 87). However, this is a limited altruistic behaviour since it is subject to expected retribution in the future. Taken to the animal world, we can give the alert call of some types of birds when a predator approaches to warn the rest of the group.

It is precisely at this point that a first step is taken towards the emergence of protocol since we move to the moment in which the human being realises that collaborating in groups -first with one or two people, and then with bigger groups- increases their chances of survival in their environment. This fact, moreover, is a turning point for humanity, as it will be able to discriminate between selfish and altruistic people. This situation is associated with an evolution in which the concepts of friendship, culture, moral aggression, etc., will emerge as elements that will reinforce, or not, cooperative behaviour. In addition, communication and other associated skills will also be developed.

With this scenario described, the necessary conditions are given for the birth of protocol. There will come a time when humans are in groups that need to equip themselves with rules that guarantee harmony. Who eats the most nutritious food? Who will be the gatherers, and who will be the hunters? Who sleeps in the safest place? Who has the necessary merits to lead, and what are those parameters that fit it? This situation is the origin of the protocol in our point of view. Settlements will be created, dominant individuals will emerge, coalitions and hierarchies will be identified with symbols, and gods will respond to and expand very abstract elementary concepts… The dominant power will realise that the use of events and protocol is a powerful communication tool that helps them stay in power and create a «brand image».

In addition, this origin would explain why each social group has a different type of protocol depending on its culture. Each of these groups that had no contact, or very limited, with each other has developed its own rules of coexistence and mechanisms. Therefore, to be able to deal with each other and maintain a peaceful coexistence, mechanisms have emerged that have given rise to what we call international and diplomatic protocol.

Protocol, hence, implies an escape from anarchy, chaos, and loneliness in search of the security offered by a group under a set of pre-established rules.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA

Acedo, C., & Gomila, A. (2013). Confianza y cooperatión. Una perspectiva evolutiva. Contrastes. Revista Internacional de Filosofía, 18, 221-238. https://doi.org/10.24310/contrastescontrastes.v0i0.1169

Calvo, P. (2017). Reciprocidad cordial: Bases éticas de la cooperación. Ideas y Valores, 66(165), 85-109. https://doi.org/10.15446/ideasyvalores.v66n165.53225

Lucas Marín, A. (1986). El proceso de socialización: un enfoque sociológico. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 44(173), 357-370.

Ruiz Tafur, P. (2009). La Investigación En El Tema De Socialización. Psicogente, 12(22), 326-340.

Silva, C., & Gustavo, A. (2015). Cooperación humana, reciprocidad y castigo. Un enfoque evolutivo. Revista Colombiana de Filosofía de la Ciencia, 15(30), 81-121. 

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Written by Daniel DELMÁS, Professional of events and protocol 

Category: International Protocol

Reference: DD171121IP

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OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PROTOCOL

Human society has undergone a significant evolution since the dawn of its birth. Human beings have studied and adapted the world around them to survive and conquer high quotas in terms of quality of life. To better study their environment, a form of research called the scientific method was developed and has evolved throughout history. This is undoubtedly how knowledge is achieved today, and it is the only objective and universally valid way.

Unfortunately, there is very little scientific literature about it for people who devote their lives to the practice and investigation of protocol. And when it comes to languages, the research work in Spanish is scarce and almost non-existing in English. Since the beginning of time, those who have exercised protocol did not need to register or study it since their knowledge was based on customs and legislation. Thus, it was transmitted from person to person. Over time, people who worked as protocol professionals captured their experience, ultimately leading to a rich and developed professional or pragmatic literature. The problem with this approach is that each author, depending on the branch of knowledge from which they come -law, communication, etc.- and the sector in which they exercise the protocol -official, corporate, or social- sees the discipline differently. Therefore, they see and describe their part of the protocolary reality. In the absence of the application of a scientific method that gives an objective and universal approach, it is a particular and “biased” vision that cannot be taken as an absolute truth (Delmás Martín, 2021, p. 2865).

This last perspective on the reality of the existing literature on the protocol has already been described perfectly by Álvarez Rodríguez (2008, p. 162) in a scientific paper. She concluded that a pragmatic character marks this literature and that it has been trying to get closer to the academic part. On the other hand, by analysing the trajectory of the bibliography, she concluded that, in Spanish, four different schools or approaches had been generated in which professional literature on protocol could be unified: the diplomatic school, the historical approach, the law school, and the community approach.

The first of these is the diplomatic perspective. The author considered its father, José Antonio de Urbina. He practised law for many years and was diplomatic; therefore, it is not hard to imagine why he was the one who considered protocol as a tool for mutual understanding between nations or cultures.

Secondly, we have the legal school, which, as its name suggests, focuses the study of the protocol mainly on the laws: norms, customs, and legal rules that have been adopted over the course of time. It’s meaningful when we think of it since professionals in this field base their work on these laws and norms that are the essence of protocol science. It made an impression on professionals very quickly at the time. It is what has led many professionals and scholars of the subject to consider that it is the only protocol that comes from the official since it comes mainly from existing legislation. From my perspective, after having studied the scientific literature, this point of view is partial and does not allow us to acquire a holistic view of the protocol. The most representative author of this legal trend is Francisco López-Nieto.

The third approach is the historical one. It focuses its study on the narration of the traditions, customs, and social uses that have been happening throughout history. It makes significant contributions as well as the previous ones. We consider Felio A. Vilarrubias as the most outstanding author of this current.

Finally, we have the communicative perspective. This has driven the protocol to a great extent among protocol professionals. Considering it as a communication tool for public and private organisations and generator of reputation and brand image has kicked off its study in communication sciences to obtain the most significant possible benefit from it. It is one of the most popular today and has the most followers and scholars.

To summarise, regarding schools, two clarifications can be made by the author, which I refute from my study of the subject: the first is that, although the different schools have been happening over time, none of them has annulled the previous ones. All of them are considered valid and bring a vision to the discipline. On the other hand, an obvious conclusion emerges: none of these fields of study of the protocol can fully provide solutions to the needs of the discipline at present on its own. However, together they give us more meaning.

Therefore, to understand the protocol in its fullness, we must see it from the diplomatic, historical, legal, and communication perspective and the sociology, anthropology, and other disciplines (Bernad Monferrer, Rubio Calero, & Delmás Martín, 2021, p. 2758). The protocol is like a prism with many faces, and only by looking at it from all of them will we fully be able to understand it and develop the science of protocol.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Álvarez Rodríguez, M. L. (2008). Nociones de protocolo desde la bibliografía de sus autoridades. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, (63), 165-173. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-63-2008-760c-165-173

Bernad Monferrer, E., Rubio Calero, D., & Delmás Martín, D. (2021). Protocolo: dispersión de su conocimiento en otros campos. En La comunicación a la vanguardia. Tendencias, métodos y perspectivas. (pp. 2737-2759). Madrid: Editorial Fragua.

Delmás Martín, D. (2021). Una experiencia en análisis de contenido de definiciones de protocolo propuestas por profesionales del sector. En La comunicación a la vanguardia. Tendencias, métodos y perspectivas. (pp. 2846-2869). Madrid: Editorial Fragua.

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Written by Daniel DELMÁS, Professional of events and protocol. 

28 September 2021, The Netherlands

Category: International Protocol

Reference: DD280921IP

ProtocolToday is an expert organization, Founded by professionals with years of experience in Cultural Intelligence and Soft Diplomacy. They offer well-researched training programs to help you prepare for the international presence. Enhance your abilities to dine, converse, and present at an international stage.

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BUSINESS PROTOCOL AS A DIFFERENTIAL TOOL IN THE CORPORATE IMAGE

Nowadays, all companies look for differentiating elements from their competitors to improve their corporate image before the different interest groups or stakeholders.

The companies invest in R + D + I (Research + Development and innovation) for the constant improvement of the product. Still, a plus to the service would be the protocol as a differentiating element so that it will be explained how this tool can improve the corporate image.

Within corporate communication, everything communicates and the image that we project as a company. Therefore, the question arises: What is the corporate image?

The corporate image is what the company says + what the company does; this is the image.

Having a positive image helps in:

  • Obtain the respect and acceptance of the public.
  • Enhance the image of the brand.

How can the Business Protocol help our corporate image?

To answer this question, it is important to know some key concepts.

The protocol is the set of rules established by law or tradition, uses, and customs for the performance of a certain official act and unofficial acts. Within the protocol, we can find the official protocol, military protocol, religious protocol, university protocol, and sports protocol, among others. Still, there is also the business protocol, and it is the one that is developed within the corporations. Therefore, the protocol is not only framed within the palatine (typical of the palaces), but it can be a differential tool of the corporate image. Therefore, it is important to understand that this discipline is one more tool in communication at the company’s service.

The suitable protocol transmits messages and shows outwardly that the company or home is in order. So the protocol in the business environment has become a necessity. It is a tool to achieve excellence.

Protocol in the company is:

  • Courtesy.
  • Care for the image of the company and its staff.
  • The speeches.
  • Design of spaces and scenarios in events and meetings.
  • Taking care of the guests.

It is essential to develop an internal protocol manual, which includes rules and recommendations, for the preparation of acts and aspects of a more social nature, such as a personal image.

In company events, it is important to formalise events to enhance the corporate image and see it as a differentiating element in corporate communication. The events that can be organised are corporate events (work meetings, signing of agreements, general meeting of shareholders, awards ceremony), as well as commercial events (fairs, congresses, presentations), other events (laying the first stone, site visit, inaugurations and discovery of commemorative plaques); external events, with social repercussion, regularly organised by third parties (sponsorship of events), thereby enhancing the image of the company.

Well-managed acts will help to enhance the image of the company.

The parts of the protocol act in company events are the following:

  • Corporate symbols, such as the company logo, must be present on the institutional flag, which will bear the company colours, invitations, advertising banner for the event, etc. It should be noted that the company’s logo must be in the photography points, such as the presidency table.
  • The host and the presidency are the people who motivate the act and have a great responsibility in making decisions. He is the image and represents the company on the spot.
  • A guest list must be established with their respective treatment for the guests. Those guests must be ordered (authorities, guests of honour, special guests, collaborators, clients, sponsors, general guests, and consorts). 
  • The reception of guests defines who receives and from where they receive. Precedents and treatments.
  • The VIP room is an exclusive, comfortable area with a private bathroom, drinks, and meals. It is a waiting room until the event begins. 
  • The speeches have a particular formula for each type of event, so the head of the protocol cabinet will be the one who gives the guideline.
  • Access and event security; 
  • Accreditations;
  • Institutional gifts or corporate gifts help to generate good institutional relationships and go hand in hand with the courtesy that is printed on these details, which will be aligned with the company’s policy and detailed in a corporate gift catalogue, which will have levels for different audiences (partners, suppliers, visitors, etc.), this will help us to know what to give and when to give;
  • The book of honour is a book whose purpose is that all the personalities and guests of honor who attend the events organised by the company can sign it—made of a material that enhances and adorns it with an embossed silver cover must have the company logo.
  • The dismissal at the events also has a protocol to follow, the most important authority being the one who leaves the event first and will be accompanied by the person who received it from the company, generating a feeling in the visitor of having been attended at all times, both on arrival and at the farewell.

Finally, it is good to measure the impact and results. Tailored events have to be organised, creative, impactful, and with content, generating a memorable memory.

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Written by: MG. Jorge PRADO, Master in public relations, events, and Protocol, an expert in Corporate Communication. 

19 September 2021, PERU

Category: BP

Reference: JP19-0921P

ProtocolToday is an expert organization, Founded by professionals with years of experience in Cultural Intelligence and Soft Diplomacy. They offer well-researched training programs to help you prepare for the international presence. Enhance your abilities to dine, converse, and present at an international stage.

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PROTOCOL IN XXI CENTURY

If there is something that will be accompanying humanity until the end of its days, it is protocol. It is a practical discipline by nature, which is why there has never been a need to register it, but with the emergence of communication, sciences have begun to be studied. The reason is simple: it is a powerful communication tool that helps connect public and private organisations with their audiences.

One of the problems facing the discipline, which we will discuss in a future article, is the lack of scientific research. 99% of the protocol manuals that we can find today in the market have a practical profile, which means that they are written from a professional perspective and not with a scientific approach. As a result, we can say that no one knows what the protocol is because the scientific method has not been applied to approach this concept.

The review of the current little scientific literature on protocol leads us to affirm that protocol is a science in the embryonic state (Álvarez Rodríguez, 2008; Pulido Polo, 2015; Ramos Fernández, 2013; Ramos Fernández, 2014;  y Sáez González & Martínez Fierro, 2020) that, depending on what the professional and research community does, will be consolidated as a science or remain in a simple auxiliary tool.

So, as a science, what does protocol refer to? Our research is the science of the human order since it gives us a series of rules and guidelines to ensure peaceful and positive coexistence among human beings. In addition, this regulation takes a special value in celebrating the symbols -the events- due to its communicative value. Let us think that, from the moment two human beings decided to live together, they needed to generate a series of rules that allow them to live together. Who will sleep in the safest place? Who will eat the most nutritious foods? Who has the merits to lead the group? This coexistence will become more and more complex with the growth of the groups, which will make the rules of the protocol more like what we know today.

Maribel Gómez and I have come up with a definition of a protocol. The objective has been to reflect what the latest scientific literature on the subject gathers and our professional experience to bring discipline to the 21st century and build protocol’s science. This is our proposal which we hope will help to shed light on this subject that is taking its first steps and that supposes not only our profession but the passion for what we do:

“The protocol is a transversal scientific discipline that defines the social structures and norms generated by use, custom, tradition or legislation that society is endowed with to guarantee and facilitate the harmonious coexistence of all its members. As a communication tool that applies to all social areas, the protocol takes special relevance in the organisation of public and private events, where it provides techniques that make tangible the intangible.”

As we have already argued, there is no doubt regarding its scientific approach. It is a science in an embryonic state. This means that it is in its beginnings, as it happened with other social sciences such as psychology or sociology at the time.

We are talking about a transversal discipline because it involves civil society, public and private organisations, and institutions. The protocol is present in all layers on which the present society is built. It reflects society, and it changes and adapts along with it.

One of the objectives of the protocol is to give order. Therefore, through this matter, we can describe the state and social structures of the society to which it belongs. For example, by reading the Royal Decree 2099/1983 of precedence (art. 10 and 12) of the Kingdom of Spain, we can understand how this country is structured.

It produces rules generated by either considering what society usually does (customs or traditions) or those generated by legislative channels from the current Government. All this with a final aim: to guarantee and structure the coexistence of a certain social group.

It is a communication tool because it is used by institutions, private companies, and civil society to communicate. And therefore, the rules produced by the protocol take on special relevance in the organisation of events, public or private.

The protocol makes the intangible tangible because it allows us to speak without words. It is an essential ally in generating an institutional or corporate image in organisations and social people. It uses its essential four principles elements: spaces, people, times, and symbols. For example, within the latter, we consider the flags of countries since they make it clear to us who is hosting an event without the need for words.

In conclusion, we would like to address all those interested in the subject of the protocol. We expect professionals to find this definition interesting and appropriate. To the students of the subject, we hope that it has helped them shed light on your future work, and we encourage you to research the protocol. And to non-expert people, we hope that it will help you understand a little better what protocol is and what we professionals do in the field.

SCIENTIFIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

Álvarez Rodríguez, M. L. (2008). Artículos de protocolo y ceremonial en Revistas Académicas Iberoamericanas. Razón y Palabra. Primera revista electrónica en lationoamérica especializada en comunicación, (65), 1-11.

Delmás Martín, D., & Gómez Hernando, M. (2019). Spoilers de Protocolo. (Editorum, Ed.) (1a Edición). Madrid: Editorum.

Orozco López, J. de D. (2016). Protocolo para la organización de actos oficiales y empresariales. (I. Editorial, Ed.). Antequera: ic editorial.

Pulido Polo, M. (2015). Ceremonial y protocolo: métodos y técnicas de investigación científica. Revista de Comunicación Vivat Academia, 65, 1137-1156.

Ramos Fernández, F. (2013). Método científico e interferencias comerciales en la construcción de la ciencia del protocolo. Una reflexión crítica para un proceso innovador y creíble. Revista de Comunicación Vivat Academia, 1-16.

Ramos Fernández, F. (2014). El Protocolo como ciencia propia en el ecosistema de la Comunicación. Espacios posibles para transformar una técnica en una disciplina científica. Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico, 19(2), 1075-1089. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_ESMP.2013.v19.n2.43489

Sáez González, E., & Martínez Fierro, S. J. (2020). Protocolo como disciplina científica: un análisis bibliométrico. Revista Estudios Institucionales, 7(12), 149-178. https://doi.org/10.5944/eeii.vol.7.n.12.2020.26964

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 Written by: Daniel DELMÁS, Professional of events and protocol

30 July 2021, The Netherlands

Category: Internancional Protocol 

Reference: DD300721IP

ProtocolToday is an expert organization, Founded by professionals with years of experience in Cultural Intelligence and Soft Diplomacy. They offer well-researched training programs to help you prepare for the international presence. Enhance your abilities to dine, converse, and present at an international stage.

Become discreet and make your mark!